Logic Citation

________________________________________ Logic Citation 

1- Link @ http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/logic/whatislogic.php 
L01.1 A preliminary definition The term "logic" came from the Greek word logos, which is sometimes translated as 
"sentence", "discourse", "reason", "rule", and "ratio". Of course, these translations are not enough to help us 
understand the more specialized meaning of "logic" as it is used today. So what is logic? Briefly speaking, we 
might define logic as the study of the principles of correct reasoning (2). This is a rough definition, because how
 logic should be properly defined is actually quite a controversial matter. However, for the purpose of this tour, we 
thought it would be useful to give you at least some rough idea as to the subject matter that you will be studying. 
So this is what we shall try to do on this page. 

2- Link @ http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/logic/whatislogic.php L01.2 Logic is not the psychology of reasoning One 
thing you should note about this definition is that logic is concerned with the principles of correct reasoning. 
Studying the correct principles of reasoning is not the same as studying the psychology of reasoning. 
Logic is the former discipline, and it tells us how we ought to reason if we want to reason correctly (3).
 Whether people actually follow these rules of correct reasoning is an empirical matter, 
something that is not the concern of logic. The psychology of reasoning, on the other hand, is an empirical science.
 It tells us about the actual reasoning habits of people, including their mistakes. A psychologist studying reasoning
 might be interested in how people's ability to reason varies with age. But such empirical facts are of no concern 
to the logician.

 3- Link @ http://www.rbjones.com/rbjpub/logic/log001.htm) "Logic is for constructing proofs, 
which give us reliable confirmation of the truth of the proven proposition(1)" 

-4 Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam's_razor Occam's razor, also known as Occam's razor, and sometimes expressed 
in Latin as lex parsimoniae (the law of parsimony, economy or succinctness), is a principle that generally recommends that,
 from among competing hypotheses, selecting the one that makes the fewest new assumptions usually provides the correct one,
 and that the simplest explanation will be the most plausible until evidence is presented to prove it false. 

-5 Link @ http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/logic/whatislogic.php “Reason is universal and transcends such petty things as
 culture and history, and takes priory of the base human tendencies like emotions, habits, and ( blank). This is a 
\way to Unite humanity under one common system that will solve many issues”. L01.3 The principles of logic 
So what are these principles of reasoning that are part of logic? There are many such principles, but the main 
(not the only) thing that we study in logic are principles governing the validity of arguments
 - whether certain conclusions follow from some given assumptions. For example, consider the following three arguments
 : If Tom is a philosopher, then Tom is poor. Tom is a philosopher. Therefore, Tom is poor. If K>10, then K>2. K>10.
 Therefore, K>2. If Tarragona is in Europe, then Tarragona is not in China. Tarragona is in Europe. 
Therefore, Tarragona is not in China. These three arguments here are obviously good arguments in the sense that 
their conclusions follow from the assumptions. If the assumptions of the argument are true, the conclusion of the
 argument must also be true. A logician will tell us that they are all cases of a particular form of argument known
 as "modus ponens" : We shall be discussing validity again later on. It should be pointed out that logic is not just
 concerned with the validity of arguments. Logic also studies consistency, and logical truths, and properties of 
logical systems such as completeness and soundness. But we shall see that these other concepts are also very 
much related to the concept of validity. This is how I am using logic by and large. "One thing you should 
note about this definition is that logic is concerned with the principles of correct reasoning. Logic is the 
discipline, and it tells us how we ought to reason if we want to reason correctly" (above link). 
Using the correct methods everyone who employees reason will come to the same conclusion.(5) 
“Reason is universal and transcends such petty things as culture and history, and takes priory of the base human 
tendencies like emotions, habits, and ( blank). This is a way to Unite humanity under one common system that 
will solve many issues”. Logic is implied by many folks in many different way like science and its method, c
onstructing arguments taught by public school, things like architecture and other tangible things.

 6- http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/logic/whatislogic.php “Reason is universal and transcends such petty things as culture 
and history, and takes priory of the base human tendencies like emotions, habits, and ( blank). This is a way to 
Unite humanity under one common system that will solve many issues”.

 7- Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance:An Inquiry into Values by: Robert Pirsig
 http://www.physics.ohiostate.edu/~prewett/writings/BookReviews/ZenAndTheArtOfMotorcycleMaintenance.html 
From philosophy, Pirsig eventually became an English teacher at Bozeman, a small college in the middle of Montana. 
 Here he developed the idea of the "Church of Reason", that is, the University.  It's job is the search of the
 Kantian absolute truth.  From a chance phrase dropped by a colleague, he began to think about Quality. 
 Sure, he taught it, but what was it?  He and his students both seemed to agree on whether something was
 Quality or not (the class analyzed anonymousized papers), but they could not define it. 
 Here the Church of Reason was failing in its job, because the moment that he attempted to define Quality, 
it disappeared. Without a definition, Reason cannot be applied. 
8- Christopher Renstrom Rulingplanets.com is Christopher Renstrom’s vision of an on-line, subscription-based,
 interactive Astrology Magazine.  It is based on his book Ruling Planets, which was published by HarperCollins in 2002
 and has sold out its print run. Renstrom has been a practicing astrologer since 1985.  
Renstrom currently writes the daily horoscopes for the San Francisco Chronicle (replacing Jeanne Dixon) and SFGate.com.
 He created the horoscope column for ALLURE magazine (Conde Nast publications), his “Renstrom’s Horoscopes” 
were carried on Verizon, Sprint, and AllTel, and he conceived and developed Ask the Astrologer for LifetimeTV.com. 
Most recently he was voted Best Astrologer by City Weekly’s Best of Utah 2012.   
Renstrom regularly appears on radio and television.  He also lectures about the history of Astrology in America, 
and runs Ruling Planet workshops around the country.  You can contact him for lectures, workshops, and readings 
by using the website contact form... Citation 1- Link @ http://www.rbjones.com/rbjpub/logic/log001.htm) "Logic is for
 constructing proofs, which give us reliable confirmation of the truth of the proven proposition(1)"
 2- Link @ http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/logic/whatislogic.php L01.1 A preliminary definition The term "logic" came
 from the Greek word logos, which is sometimes translated as "sentence", "discourse", "reason", "rule", and "ratio". 
Of course, these translations are not enough to help us understand the more specialized meaning of "logic" as it 
is used today. So what is logic? Briefly speaking, we might define logic as the study of the principles of correct 
reasoning (2). This is a rough definition, because how logic should be properly defined is actually quite a 
controversial matter. However, for the purpose of this tour, we thought it would be useful to give you at least
 some rough idea as to the subject matter that you will be studying. So this is what we shall try to do on this page.

 3- Link @ http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/logic/whatislogic.php L01.2 Logic is not the psychology of reasoning
 One thing you should note about this definition is that logic is concerned with the principles of correct reasoning. 
Studying the correct principles of reasoning is not the same as studying the psychology of reasoning.
 Logic is the former discipline, and it tells us how we ought to reason if we want to reason correctly 
(3). Whether people actually follow these rules of correct reasoning is an empirical matter, something that 
is not the concern of logic. The psychology of reasoning, on the other hand, is an empirical science. It 
tells us about the actual reasoning habits of people, including their mistakes. A psychologist studying reasoning 
might be interested in how people's ability to reason varies with age. But such empirical facts are of no 
concern to the logician. 
-4 Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam's_razor Occam's razor, also known as Occam's razor, and sometimes
 expressed in Latin as lex parsimoniae (the law of parsimony, economy or succinctness), is a principle that generally
 recommends that, from among competing hypotheses, selecting the one that makes the fewest new assumptions usually
 provides the correct one, and that the simplest explanation will be the most plausible until evidence is 
presented to prove it false. -5 Link @ http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/logic/whatislogic.php L01.3 The principles of logic So what are these principles of reasoning that are part of logic? There are many such principles, but the main (not the only) thing that we study in logic are principles governing the validity of arguments - whether certain conclusions follow from some given assumptions. For example, consider the following three arguments : If Tom is a philosopher, then Tom is poor. Tom is a philosopher. Therefore, Tom is poor. If K>10, then K>2. K>10. Therefore, K>2. If Tarragona is in Europe, then Tarragona is not in China. Tarragona is in Europe. Therefore, Tarragona is not in China. These three arguments here are obviously good arguments in the sense that their conclusions follow from the assumptions. If the assumptions of the argument are true, the conclusion of the argument must also be true. A logician will tell us that they are all cases of a particular form of argument known as "modus ponens" : We shall be discussing validity again later on. It should be pointed out that logic is not just concerned with the validity of arguments. Logic also studies consistency, and logical truths, and properties of logical systems such as completeness and soundness. But we shall see that these other concepts are also very much related to the concept of validity. This is how I am using logic by and large. "One thing you should note about this definition is that logic is concerned with the principles of correct reasoning. Logic is the discipline, and it tells us how we ought to reason if we want to reason correctly" (above link). Using the correct methods everyone who employees reason will come to the same conclusion.(5) “Reason is universal and transcends such petty things as culture and history, and takes priory of the base human tendencies like emotions, habits, and ( blank). This is a way to Unite humanity under one common system that will solve many issues”. Logic is implied by many folks in many different way like science and its method, constructing arguments taught by public school, things like architecture and other tangible things.

 6 - Link @  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragmatism definition  -- Charles Sanders Peirce (and his pragmatic 
maxim) deserves most of the credit for pragmatism,[1] along with later twentieth century contributors 
William James, John Dewey and George Santayana. Charles Peirce developed the idea that inquiry depends
 on real doubt, not mere verbal or hyperbolic doubt[7] and Charles Peirce said, in order to understand a 
conception in a fruitful way, "Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, 
your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object"

 7-  Link @  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragmatism definition  -- Charles Sanders Peirce (and his pragmatic 
maxim) deserves most of the credit for pragmatism,[1] along with later twentieth century contributors 
William James, John Dewey and George Santayana. Charles Peirce developed the idea that inquiry depends
 on real doubt, not mere verbal or hyperbolic doubt[7] and Charles Peirce said, in order to understand 
a conception in a fruitful way, "Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. 
Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object" 

8- Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reductionism Reductionism can mean either (a) an approach to 
understanding the nature of complex things by reducing them to the interactions of their parts, or 
to simpler or more fundamental things or (b) a philosophical position that a complex system is nothing
 but the sum of its parts, and that an account of it can be reduced to accounts of individual constituents.

9- Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reductionism Reductionism strongly reflects a certain perspective 
on causality. In a reductionist framework, phenomena that can be explained completely in terms of relations
 between other more fundamental phenomena, are called epiphenomena. Often there is an implication that the 
epiphenomenon exerts no causal agency on the fundamental phenomena that explain it. 

10- Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethics Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime, etc.[citation needed] Major branches of ethics include: 
  • Meta-ethics, about the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions and how their truth values (if any) may be determined;
  • Normative ethics, about the practical means of determining a moral course of action;
  • Applied ethics, about how moral outcomes can be achieved in specific situations;
  • Moral psychology, about how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is;
  • Descriptive ethics, about what moral values people actually abide by.

11- Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personification Anthropomorphism is any attribution of human 
characteristics (or characteristics assumed to belong only to humans) to animals, non-living things, 
phenomena, material states, objects or abstract concepts, such as organizations, governments, spirits 
or deities

12- The term was coined in the mid 1700s 
(that it comes from the 1700 comes from  Harper, Douglas. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Douglas Harper. 
Secondary Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personification#cite_note-.27anthropomorphism.27_coining_date-0 
Although the original link is @ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=anthropomorphism&searchmode=none.) 

13- Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leap_of_faith A leap of faith, in its most commonly used meaning, 
is the act of  believing in or accepting something intangible or unprovable, or without empirical evidence.
[1] It is an act  commonly associated with religious belief as many religions consider faith to be an
 essential element of piety

14- Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personification In the scientific community, using anthropomorphic 
language that suggests animals have intentions and emotions has been deprecated as indicating a lack
 of objectivity.  Biologists have avoided the assumption that animals share any of the same mental, 
social, and emotional capacities of humans, relying instead on the strictly observable evidence.
[28] Animals should be considered, as Ivan Pavlov  wrote in 1927, "without any need to resort to 
fantastic speculations as to the existence of any possible subjective states".[29] More recently, 
The Oxford companion to animal behaviour (1987) advises "one is well advised to study the behavior
 rather than attempting to get at any underlying emotion".[30] 

15- Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alchemy 

Overview

The best known goals of the alchemists were the transmutation of common metals into gold or silver, and 
the creation of a "panacea," a remedy that supposedly would cure all diseases and prolong life
 indefinitely; and the discovery  of a universal solvent.[1]Modern discussions of alchemy are 
generally split into an examination of its  exoteric practical applications, and its esoteric aspects. 
The former is pursued by historians of the physical sciences who have examined the subject in terms of
 proto-chemistry, medicine, and charlatanismThe latter is of interest to the historians of 
esotericism, psychologists, spiritual and new age communities, and hermetic philosophers.[2] The
 subject has also made an ongoing impact on literature and the arts. Despite the modern split, 
numerous sources stress an integration of esoteric and exoteric approaches to alchemy. Holmyard,
 when writing on exoteric aspects, states that they can not be properly appreciated if the esoteric is 
not always kept in mind.[3] The prototype for this model can be found in Bolos of Mendes' second
 century BCE work, Physika kai Mystika (On Physical and Mystical Matters).[4] Marie-Louise von Franz 
tells us the double approach of Western alchemy was set from the start, when Greek philosophy was 
mixed with Egyptian and Mesopotamian technology. The technological, operative approach, which she 
calls extraverted, and the mystic, contemplative, psychological one, which she calls introverted are
 not mutually exclusive, but complementary instead, as meditation requires practice
 in the real world, and conversely.[5] 

[edit]Relation to the science of chemistry

Main article: History of chemistry Practical applications of alchemy produced a wide range of contributions to medicine 
and the physical sciences. Alchemists Jābir ibn Hayyān[6] and Robert Boyle[7] are both credited as being the fathers
 of chemistry. Paracelsian iatrochemistryemphasized the medicinal application of alchemy (continued in plant alchemy, 
or spagyric).[8] Studies of alchemy also influenced Isaac Newton's theory of gravity.[9] Academic historical research 
supports that the alchemists were searching for a material substance using physical methods.[10] It is a popular belief 
that Alchemists made contributions to the "chemical" industries of the day—ore testing and refining, metalworking, 
production of gunpowder, ink, dyes, paints, cosmetics, leather tanning, ceramics, glass manufacture, preparation of 
extracts, liquors, and so on (it seems that the preparation of aqua vitae, the "water of life", was a fairly popular 
"experiment" among European alchemists). Alchemists contributed distillation to Western Europe. The attempts of 
alchemists to arrange information on substances, so as to clarify and anticipate the products of their chemical 
reactions, resulted in early conceptions of chemical elements and the first rudimentary periodic tables. They 
learned how to extract metals from ores, and how to compose many types of inorganic acids and bases. During the 
17th century, practical alchemy started to evolve into modern chemistry,[11] as it was renamed by Robert Boyle
the "father of modern chemistry".[12] In his book, The Skeptical Chymist, Boyle attacked Paracelsus and the 
natural philosophy ofAristotle, which was taught at universities. However, Boyle's biographers, in their 
emphasis that he laid the foundations of modern chemistry, neglect how steadily he clung to the Scholastic sciences 
and to Alchemy, in theory, practice and doctrine.[13] The decline of alchemy continued in the 18th century with the 
birth of modern chemistry, which provided a more precise and reliable framework within a new view of the universe
 based on rational materialism. 

[edit]Relation to Hermeticism

In the eyes of a variety of esoteric and Hermetic practitioners, the heart of alchemy is spiritual. Transmutation of lead 
into gold is presented as an analogy for personal transmutation, purification, and perfection.[4] This approach is 
often termed 'spiritual', 'esoteric', or 'internal' alchemy. Early alchemists, such as Zosimos of Panopolis (c. 300 A.D.),
 highlight the spiritual nature of the alchemical quest, symbolic of a religious regeneration of the human soul.[14]
 This approach continued in the Middle Ages, as metaphysical aspects, substances, physical states, and material
 processes were used as metaphors for spiritual entities, spiritual states, and, ultimately, transformation. 
In this sense, the literal meanings of 'Alchemical Formulas' were a blind, hiding their true spiritual philosophy.
 Practitioners and patrons such as Melchior Cibinensis and Pope Innocent VIII existed within the ranks of the church, 
while Martin Luther applauded alchemy for its consistency with Christian teachings.[15] Both the transmutation of 
common metals into gold and the universal panacea symbolized evolution from an imperfect, diseased, corruptible, 
and ephemeral state towards a perfect, healthy, incorruptible, and everlasting state; and the philosopher's stone 
then represented a mystic key that would make this evolution possible. Applied to the alchemist himself, the twin 
goal symbolized his evolution from ignorance to enlightenment, and the stone represented a hidden spiritual truth 
or power that would lead to that goal. In texts that are written according to this view, the cryptic alchemical symbols,
 diagrams, and textual imagery of late alchemical works typically contain multiple layers of meanings, allegories,
 and references to other equally cryptic works; and must be laboriously decoded to discover their true meaning. 
In his 1766 Alchemical Catechism, Théodore Henri de Tschudi denotes that the usage of the metals was a symbol:
Q. When the Philosophers speak of gold and silver, from which they extract their matter, are we to suppose that they refer to the vulgar gold and silver?
A. By no means; vulgar silver and gold are dead, while those of the Philosophers are full of life.[16]

 During the renaissance, alchemy broke into more distinct schools placing spiritual alchemists in high contrast with those working with literal metals and chemicals.[17] While most spiritual alchemists also incorporate elements of exotericism, examples of a purely spiritual alchemy can be traced back as far as the sixteenth century, when Jacob Boehme used alchemical terminology in strictly mystical writings.[18] Another example can be found in the work of Heinrich Khunrath (1560–1605) who viewed the process of transmutation as occurring within the alchemist's soul.[17] The recent work of Principe and Newman, seeks to reject the 'spiritual interpretation' of alchemy, stating it arose as a product of the Victorian occult revival.[19] There is evidence to support that some classical alchemical sources were adulterated during this time to give greater weight to the spiritual aspects of alchemy.[20][21] Despite this, other scholars such as Calian and Tilton reject this view as entirely historically inaccurate, drawing examples of historical spiritual alchemy from Boehme, Isaac Newton, and Michael Maier.[22] 16 - Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empiricism Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily via sensory experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism,idealism and historicism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions.[1] Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. 17-  Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe and strengthened in reaction to theIndustrial Revolution.[1] In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.[2] It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography,[3] education[4] and natural history.[5]18 - Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existentialism 18 -  Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existentialism Existentialism is a term applied to a school of 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,[1][2][3] shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual.[4] In existentialism, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude," or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world.[5] Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience.[6][7] The early 19th century philosopher Søren Kierkegaard is widely regarded as the father of existentialism.[8][9] He maintained that the individual is solely responsible for giving his or her own lifemeaning and for living that life passionately and sincerely,[10][11] in spite of many existential obstacles and distractions including despair, angst, absurdity, alienation, and boredom.[12] Subsequent existentialist philosophers retain the emphasis on the individual, but differ, in varying degrees, on how one achieves and what constitutes a fulfilling life, what obstacles must be overcome, and what external and internal factors are involved, including the potential consequences of the existence[13][14] or non-existence of God.[15][16] Existentialism became fashionable in the post-World War years as a way to reassert the importance of human individuality and freedom.[17] 19 - Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idealism In philosophy, idealism is the family of views which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. As an ontological doctrine, idealism goes further, asserting that all entities are composed of mind or spirit.[1] Idealism thus rejects physicalist and dualist theories that fail to ascribe priority to the mind. 20 - Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Golden_Rule The Golden Rule or ethic of reciprocity is a maxim,[2] ethical code, or morality[3] that essentially states either of the following: 
  • (Positive form): One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself.[2]
  • (Negative/prohibitive form, also called The Silver Rule): One should not treat others in ways that one would not like to be treated.
 This concept describes a "reciprocal" or "two-way" relationship between one's self and others that involves both sides
 equally and in a mutual fashion.[4][5] 

21- http://www.teachingvalues.com/goldenrule.html 

The Universality of the Golden Rule in the World Religions

Christianity All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye so to them; for this is the law and the prophets.
Matthew 7:1
Confucianism Do not do to others what you would not like yourself. Then there will be no resentment against you, either in the family or in the state.
Analects 12:2
Buddhism Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.
Udana-Varga 5,1
Hinduism This is the sum of duty; do naught onto others what you would not have them do unto you.
Mahabharata 5,1517
Islam No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself.
Sunnah
Judaism What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellowman. This is the entire Law; all the rest is commentary.
Talmud, Shabbat 3id
Taoism Regard your neighbor’s gain as your gain, and your neighbor’s loss as your own loss.
Tai Shang Kan Yin P’ien
Zoroastrianism That nature alone is good which refrains from doing another whatsoever is not good for itself.
Dadisten-I-dinik, 94,5
 Adapted from "The Christopher Newsletter" 22- Link @  http://relevantinsights.com/the-irrational-consumer We,
 as consumers, don’t always do what we say. This is a fact that market researchers have to wrestle with
 in the design phase of any research project. As Jeffrey Henning pointed out in his recent 
article, Respondents as Economic Actors: Behavioral Economics & MR, some schools of economic 
thought have been drawing attention to the inadequacy of the rational choice theory, 
which assumes that consumers have perfect information about all the alternatives and weigh 
in pros and cons before making a purchase decision. 

22- The story - Does rational science have room for irrational 
belief? Link@http://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/everyday-myths/rational-science-irrational-
belief.htm 

 23-  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that
 originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe and strengthened in reaction to theIndustrial Revolution.[1] 
In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction 
against the scientific rationalization of nature.[2] It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and 
literature, but had a major impact on historiography,[3] education[4] and natural history.[5]

24-  Link @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existentialism Existentialism is a term applied to a school of 19th- and 
20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,[1][2][3]  shared the belief that philosophical
 thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual.
[4]  In existentialism, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called
 "the existential attitude," or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless
 or absurd world.[5]  Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, 
in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience.[6][7] The early 19th 
century philosopher Søren Kierkegaard is widely regarded as the father of existentialism.[8][9] He maintained 
that the individual is solely responsible for giving his or her own lifemeaning and for living that
 life passionately and sincerely,[10][11] in spite of many existential obstacles and distractions 
including despair, angst, absurdity, alienation, and boredom.[12] Subsequent existentialist philosophers 
retain the emphasis on the individual, but differ, in varying degrees, on how one achieves and what 
constitutes a fulfilling life, what obstacles must be overcome, and what external and internal factors are 
involved, including the potential consequences of the existence[13][14] or non-existence of God.[15][16] 
Existentialism became fashionable in the post-World War years as a way to reassert the importance of human
 individuality and freedom.[17] 

25 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idealism In philosophy, idealism is the 
family of views which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally
 constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a skepticism about the 
possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. As an ontological doctrine, idealism goes further, 
asserting that all entities are composed of mind or spirit.[1] Idealism thus rejects physicalist and dualist 
theories that fail to ascribe priority to the mind.

 26- analogy -- Link @ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/analogy 

[uh-nal-uh-jee] Show IPA – a·nal·o·gy  noun, plural -gies.

1. A similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be based: the analogy between the heart and a pump. 2. similarity or comparability: I see no analogy between your problem and mine. 3. Biology . an analogous relationship. 4. Linguistics . a. the process by which words or phrases are created or re-formed according to existing patterns in the language, as when shoon  was re-formed as shoes,  when -ize  is added to nouns like winter  to form verbs, or when a child says foots  for feet. b.a form resulting from such a process. 5. Logic . a form of reasoning in which one thing is inferred to be similar to another thing in a certain respect, on the basis of the known similarity between the things in other respects. 

27 – metaphor

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/metaphor

[met-uh-fawr, -fer] Show IPA – - noun met·a·phor


  1. a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in “A mighty fortress is our God.” Compare mixed metaphor, simile ( def. 1 ) .
  2. 2. something used, or regarded as being used, to represent something else; emblem; symbol.

28 – Value — Link @ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/value

[val-yoo] Show IPA noun, verb, -ued, -u·ing.  noun 1. Relative worth, merit, or importance: 
the value of a college education; the value of a queen in chess. 2. Monetary or material worth, as
 in commerce or trade: This piece of land has greatly  increased in value. 
3. The worth of something in terms of the amount of other things for which it can be exchanged 
or in terms of some medium of exchange. 4. Equivalent worth or return in money, material, services, 
etc.: to give value for value received. 5. Estimated or assigned worth; valuation: a painting with 
a current value of $500,000. 

29- Golden Rule http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Golden_Rule The  Golden Rule or ethic of 
reciprocity is a maxim,[2] ethical code, or morality[3] that essentially states either of the following: 
  • (Positive form): One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself.[2]
  • (Negative/prohibitive form, also called The Silver Rule): One should not treat others in ways that one would not like
  • to be treated.
This concept describes a "reciprocal" or "two-way" relationship between one's self and others that involves both sides equally and in a mutual fashion.[4][5] 30- http://www.teachingvalues.com/goldenrule.html 

The Universality of the Golden Rule in the World Religions

Christianity All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye so to them; for this is the law and the prophets.
Matthew 7:1
Confucianism Do
not do to others what you would not like yourself. Then there will be
no resentment against you, either in the family or in the state.
Analects 12:2
Buddhism Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.
Udana-Varga 5,1
Hinduism This is the sum of duty; do naught onto others what you would not have them do unto you.
Mahabharata 5,1517
Islam No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself.
Sunnah
Judaism What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellowman. This is the entire Law; all the rest is commentary.
Talmud, Shabbat 3id
Taoism Regard your neighbor’s gain as your gain, and your neighbor’s loss as your own loss.
Tai Shang Kan Yin P’ien
Zoroastrianism That nature alone is good which refrains from doing another whatsoever is not good for itself.
Dadisten-I-dinik, 94,5
 31- Link @  http://relevantinsights.com/the-irrational-consumer We, as consumers, don’t always do what we say.
 This is a fact that market researchers have to wrestle with in the design phase of any research project. 
As Jeffrey Henning pointed out in his recent article, Respondents as Economic Actors: Behavioral Economics & MR, 
some schools of economic thought have been drawing attention to the inadequacy of the rational choice theory, 
which assumes that consumers have perfect information about all the alternatives and weigh in pros and cons before
 making a purchase decision. additional resources. The story - Does rational science have room for irrational belief?
 Link@http://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/everyday-myths/rational-science-irrational-belief.htm 
Citation--http://science.howstuffworks.com/science-vs-myth/everyday-myths/rational-science-irrational-belief1.htm 
32 - babies as emotional beings  http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/born_to_feel_-_learning_what_a_sad_face_means.html 
Babies are emotional beings right from birth. From several different experiments, we know that babies respond to 
emotional expressions, like a big smile on your face, within the first few weeks of life. Many researchers now think 
that within three months babies can react to and express five ‘basic’ emotions:  joy, interest, anger, sadness, and disgust.
 Most think babies are born with these emotional abilities to help them form strong bonds with their caregivers, thus 
helping them survive. That really is quite amazing, considering it wasn’t long ago an infant’s smile was considered 
to be relatively meaningless. Now we know better. 
33 - 5 super powers babies have that we wish we had as adults. 
http://www.cracked.com/article_18538_5-superpowers-we-all-had-as-babies-according-to-science.html As in Mega mind,
 Mutant Metabolism, Hyper Hearing, Extreme Eyesight, and Tiny Telephathy. 

34 = Dogs show emotion http://www.wisegeek.com/how-do-dogs-show-emotions.htm 

Various studies have shown that dogs show emotions such as love, grief, jealousy and fear.


Thesecomponents are very similar to the categories of human personality.
Many dog owners are not surprised that dogs show emotions.


In early 2008, Hungarian scientists tested software that could potentially
discern the emotions behind a dog’s bark in various situations. The
initial study involved 14 herding dogs as they played, fought, spotted a
ball, went on walks, were alone, and encountered a stranger. It is
thought that because dogs cannot express their feelings linguistically,
the bark might indicate various canine emotions.


emotion though their barks, emotions such as love grief, jealousy, shame, embarrassment, anxiety, pride, anger and surprise.


A study by a psychologist and animal behavior expert in England
determined that dogs show emotions such as jealousy, shame,
embarrassment, anxiety, pride, anger and surprise. In this particular
study, dogs experienced jealousy more frequently than other animal
species, including hamsters, rabbits, cats, pigs and horses. It is
thought that because dogs are social creatures they would experience
several societal type of emotions.


Ethology is the study of animal behavior. As the field has advanced, other
specialties have arisen, including the study of animal emotions, animal
communication and sexual conduct. These advanced fields are likely to
continue to research the depth that dogs show emotions.

 -35 = http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/nature/dogs-decoded.html Program Description “Dogs Decoded" reveals the
 science behind the remarkable bond between humans and their dogs and investigates new discoveries in genetics that are 
illuminating the origin of dogs—with surprising implications for the evolution of human culture. Other research 
is proving what dog lovers have suspected all along: Dogs have an uncanny ability to read and respond to human emotions. 
Humans, in turn, respond to dogs with the same hormone responsible for bonding mothers to their babies. How did this
 incredible relationship between humans and dogs come to be? And how can dogs, so closely related to fearsome wild 
wolves, behave so differently? 
-36 = I can’t find the Link, but I heard about this on public radio [NPR] in Salt Lake City, Utah. 

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